Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)
CCS refers to projects that capture CO2 emissions from emissions sources and store them by injecting them into an underground geologic formation such as active and abandoned oil and gas reservoirs, saline aquifers, or unminable coal seams.
Although CCS is not currently commercially viable, it is likely to become an important medium-term option for climate mitigation.
CCS has also been proposed through large-scale marine projects such as seeding the ocean with iron, which would increase CO2 uptake. Such large-scale projects carry significant ecological risks and are not currently viable.
The World Wildlife Fund has issued the following guidelines:
- Ensuring the permanent safe storage of CO2 so that no leakage or out-gassing is possible. This would mean ensuring that the CO2 is safely stored for a period of 100,000 years, and should be assessed and confirmed through independent scientific review.
- Confirming that the storage of CO2 does not interfere with or have negative direct impacts on the environment; specifically, biodiversity. This also must be assessed by independent scientific review.
- Adoption of internationally agreed-upon procedures for independent verification and monitoring of storage and related activities before CCS technologies are allowed to count towards greenhouse gas reduction targets.
Learn more about CCS (external link to World Resources Institute).